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Android operating System

The android operating system may be a mobile operating system that was developed by Google (GOOGL​) to be primarily used for touchscreen devices, cell phones, and tablets. Its style lets users manipulate the mobile devices intuitively, with finger movements that mirror common motions, like pinching, swiping, and clicking.

Google conjointly employsandroid software package in televisions, cars, and wristwatches—each of that is fitted with a novel interface.

android operating system


  • The android operating system was developed by Google (GOOGL​) to be used altogether of its touchscreen devices, tablets, and cell phones.
  • This operating system was initial developed by android, Inc., a software package company settled in Silicon Valley before it had been gained by Google in 2005.
  • While the android source code is free in associate open-source format to assist advance open standards across mobile devices, it’s still prepacked with proprietary software package once sold on phone devices.

Understanding the android package

The android os was initial developed by android, Inc., a software package company settled in Silicon Valley before Google nonheritable it in 2005. Investors and industry analysts have questioned Google’s true intentions for getting into the mobile market house since that acquisition.

however in any case, presently thenceforth, Google declared the approaching rollout of its initial commercially accessible Android-powered device in 2007, though that product really hit the marketplace in 2008.

Since then, software package and application developers are ready to use android technology to develop mobile apps, that square measure sold through app stores, like Google Play.

and since it’s developed as a Google product, android users square measure given the chance to link their mobile devices to alternative Google product, like cloud storage, email platforms, and video services.

The android source code is free in associate open-source format to assist advance open standards across mobile devices. However, despite being free as “open,” android remains prepacked with proprietary software package once sold on phone devices.

as per analysis from Trend small, premium service abuse is that the most typical style of android malware, within which text messages square measure sent from infected phones to premium-rate phonephone numbers with neither the information nor the consent of the user.

Limitations of the android operating system

While android offers users a viable different to alternative mobile operating systems, many limitations still stay.

On the developer facet, secret writing advanced user experiences associated interfaces is an typically troublesome task that demands a larger reliance on Java than Objective-C. For users, the apps on the android Market tend to own lower standards than comparable app stores.

In alternative words, the apps have lower security profiles and create users additional vulnerable to knowledge breaches.

Meanwhile, Android’s lack of a voice-controlled assistant and its significant dependence on advertising will repel some users.

Features of android operating system

The distinctive features/characteristics of the Androids-os are as follows:

  • Near Field Communication (NFC)
  • Alternate Keyboards
  • IR Transmission
  • No-Touch management
  • Automation
  • Wireless App Downloads
  • Storage & Battery Swap
  • Custom Home Screen
  • Widgets
  • Custom ROMs
  • Headset layout
  • Storage
  • Connectivity: GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, Bluetooth, WI-FI, EDGE,3G,NFC, LTE,GPS.
  • Messaging: SMS, MMS, C2DM (could to device messaging), GCM (Google may messaging)
  • Multilanguage support
  • Multi-touch
  • Video line of work
  • Screen capture
  • External storage
  • Streaming media support
  • Optimized graphics


The android is an os and is a stack of software package elements that is split into 5 sections and 4 main layers that’s

  • Linux kernel
  • Libraries
  • Android runtime
  • Application Framework
  • Applications

Linux Kernel

The android uses the powerful Linux kernel and it supports a good vary of hardware drivers. The kernel is that the heart of the package that manages input and output requests from the software package.

This provides basic system functionalities like method management, memory management, device management like camera, keypad, display, etc the kernel handles all the items.

Linux is de facto sensible at networking and it’s not necessary to interface it to the peripheral hardware.

The kernel itself doesn’t move directly with the user however rather interacts with the shell and alternative programs yet like the hardware devices on the system.


The on high of a Linux kennel there’s a collection of libraries together with open-source internet browsers like WebKit, library libc. These libraries square measure wont to play and record audio and video.

The SQLite is a info that’s helpful for the storage and sharing of application knowledge. The SSL libraries are accountable for net security etc.

Android Runtime

The android runtime provides a key part known as Dalvik Virtual Machine that may be a quite java virtual machine. it’s specially designed and optimized forAndroid.

The Dalvik VM is that the method virtual machine within theAndroid package. it’s software package that runs apps on golem devices.

The Dalvik VM makes use of Linux core options like memory management and multithreading that is in java language. The Dalvik VM allows each android application to run its own method. The Dalvik VM executes the files within the .dex format.

Application Framework

The application framework layer provides several higher-level services to applications like windows manager, read system, package manager, resource manager, etc. the appliance developers are allowed to create use of those services in their applications.


You will realize all the android applications at the highest layer and you may write your application and install it on this layer. samples of such applications are contacts, books, browsers, services, etc. every application performs a special role within the overall applications.

Android emulator

The emulator could be a new application within the android software system. The mortal could be a new example that’s wont to develop and take a look at robot applications while not using any physical device.

this emulator has all of the hardware and software package features like mobile devices except phone calls. It provides a spread of navigation and control keys.

It additionally provides a screen to show your application. The emulators utilize the android virtual device configurations. Once your application is running on that, it will use services of the robot platform to assist different applications, access the network, play audio, video, store, and retrieve the information.

Android Versions

there are many versions from the beginning to the present are mentioned below from 1.0 to 2.0. Here is the android operating system list below:

Android Versionsdetails
Versions from 1.0– 1.1The first version like 1.0 was released in the year 2008 but it didn’t have any codename.
Version – 1.5In the year 2009, the 1.5 android version was released which is named Cupcake.
Version – 1.61.6 was released in the year 2009 which is called Donut. The ability of this version is, it operates on different screen sizes as well as resolutions.
Versions from 2.0 – 2.1Eclair 2.0 version was released after six weeks of the Donut version.
Version – 2.2After four months of 2.1version invention, the Android 2.2 version was released which is called Froyo.
Version 2.3The first true visual identity of version 2.3 was released in the year 2010 namely Gingerbread.
Version from 3.0 – 3.2In the year 2011, the versions from 3.0 – 3.2 were released which is named Honeycomb
Version 4.0Versions 4.0 was released in the year 2011 which is called Ice Cream Sandwich.
Versions 4.1 – 4.3Versions 4.1 to 4.3 were released between 2012 to 2013 which is called Jelly Bean.
Version 4.4 Version 4.4 was released in Late-2013’s which is called KitKat.
Android 5.0 version 5.0 was launched in the year 2014, Nov in the Nexus 6 device which is called Lollipop
Android 5.1 version 5.1 was released in March 2015 called Lollipop
Version 6.0 6.0 Version like Marshmallow was released in Oct 2015.
Version 7.0 7.0 version was released by Google in Aug 2016 called Nougat.
Version 7.1, 7.1.1 & 7.1.2 NougatAndroid 7.1 version was released in Oct 2016, called Nougat
Version 8.0 8.0 version was released in Aug 2017 called Oreo.
Version 8.1.0 8.1.0 version was released in Dec 2017, called Oreo
Version 9 version 9 Pie was released in Aug 2018
Version 10 version 10 was launched in September 2019
Version 11 version 11 was released recently on September 8th, 2020
Version 12 Version 12 TBA – Presupported
Android Versions

Android Operating System vs. Apple iOS vs windows

Differences between the android operating system vs windows os and apple iOS are given as follows:

AndroidiOS windows
The developer of Android was mostly Google & Open Handset AllianceThe developer of iOS was Apple Inc.operating system like Windows is owned by Microsoft Incorporation
The initial release was Sep23, 2008The initial release was July 29, 2007Microsoft Windows launched in the year 1985.
The latest version is Android 11Latest version of iOS is14.1 & iPadOS 14.1It is used in all personal computers in all organizations. So the present stable version of this OS is Windows 10.
It is an open-source modelThe source model is closed including open source components.Chosen license is Proprietary & Source-available. Kernel type is Hybrid based.
As compared to iOS, file transfer is easyFile transfer is more difficult in iOS but transferring media files can be done through the iTunes desktop app.operating system like Windows is owned by Microsoft Incorporation
The browser used in Android is Google ChromeThe browser used in iOS is SafariThe browser used in windows isMicrosoft edge
Web mapping used in this is Google mapsWeb mapping used in this is Apple mapsWeb mapping used in this is Windows Maps
Available languages are nearly 100Available languages are nearly 40Available languages are nearly 80
Video calling can be possible through different apps.For video calling, face time & other third-party apps are used.Video calling can be possible through windows apps.
Google assistant is used as a virtual assistantSiri is used as a virtual assistantbing voiceassistant is used as a virtual assistant
This OS supports different smartphones like Samsung, Xiaomi, OnePlus, Honor, Vivo, etcThis OS supports only Apple products like iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch & Apple TVIt is used for media centers, workstations, PCs, embedded systems & tablets. The original version is commercial.
Battery life is goodBattery life is not good as compared to AndroidBattery life is good
Biometric Authentication used in Android OS is Fingerprint or Face recognitionBiometric Authentication used in iOS is Fingerprint or Face recognitionBiometric Authentication used inMicrosoftWindows is Fingerprint or Face recognition
OS family is LinuxOS family is Linux OS X, UNIXMicrosoftWindows
different os

How to change the software system of android Phone?

In mobile phones, the operation of various applications are often run through associate degree software system. There area unit completely different types of OS available within the market wherever every OS has its own options.

This OS utilized in the device plays a key role in determining the apps, software, and functions. So, a number of the far-famed OS are Symbian, Palm, MXI, Windows Mobile, Mobile linux, etc. Here, you’ll be able to amendment an OS in some mobile phones by using the subsequent steps.

Go to Settings in android device => choose developer choices => alter USB debugging otherwise move to “about phone”, enable Build number & click thereon till you receive a message like you’re currently a replacement developer.

Download the change my software package from this link (click me)

When the transfer is finished, connect your android mobile to your laptop & open ‘Change My package.

Now, choose android => Windows then install it on your android phone.
Click on continue & choose a language if it asked

When you select the language, then automatically windows driver transfer can begin. Once it’s finished, then click on the button “Install”
You will notice an possibility like take away android.

If you need to double boot it, then you’ll be able to pay no attention to the message otherwise click on the choice there itself. Wait till the method is completed. Once the installation of files is completed. then the mobile can reboot automatically.

Similarly, the change My Software’ is once more you’ll be able to use if you need to move back to android. For that, you wish to attach the device to the computer & select the condition of Restore to the original state choice over the major menu.

Android Application Controlled Remote robot

It controls the robotic vehicle using AN robot application. The Bluetooth device is interfaced to the management unit on the robot for sensing the signals transmitted by the android application.

The remote operation is achieved by any smart-phone or table etc with android OS supported touch screen operation. The sending finish uses AN android application device remote through that commands area unit transmitted and at the receiver side, these commands are used for controlling the robot altogether directions like forward, backward and left or right, etc.

The receiver finish movement is achieved by 2 motors that are interfaced to the microcontroller. The serial communication information sent from the android application is received by a Bluetooth receiver that’s interfaced to the microcontroller.


The advantages of the android software system include the subsequent.

  • Android could be a linux based mostly open-source OS, it are often developed by anyone
  • Easy access to android apps
  • You can replace the battery and mass storage, disk drive, and UDB choice
  • Its supports all Google services
  • The OS is ready to tell you of a replacement SMS and Emails or the most recent updates.
  • It supports Multitasking
  • Android phone also can operate as a router to share the net
  • It’s free to customise
  • Can install a changed read-only memory
  • Its supports 2d and 3D graphics
  • We can install numerous apps-
  • Backup and restore of apps are often possible
  • It supports Third-party apps
  • Addition & removal of unwanted features:-
  • High job demands for android developers
  • Notifications are often displayed terribly clearly
  • Huge community support
  • The Internet are often shared from device to device
  • It is an Open source
  • Different types of mobile models you’ll be able to choose
  • Add/ take away Unwanted
  • Internal memory is Expandable
  • Cloud storage
  • It supports huge screens at an affordable worth
  • Foldable android devices
  • Different apps will run at constant time
  • Several widgets on show

The disadvantages of the android software package embrace the subsequent.

  • Apps add the background
  • Battery discharges simply thanks to tons of processes among the background.
  • Requires Google account
  • Less security, therefore fake apps are often simply installed to steal your information from strange resources
  • Mobiles with low specification run terribly slow
  • Generally, you need additional code on Java language as compared to Objective-C.
  • Android developers have a crucial time
  • Difficult layouts & animations area unit tough to code among android.
  • Protection of Virus is needed
  • For developers of the app, Google is strict
  • Several ads at intervals apps
  • Some apps quality isn’t smart
  • For elders, it’s not friendly

Thus, this can be all regarding an summary of the android OS. this can be a mobile software system, developed by Google. The applications of AN android operating system embrace the following in cell phones, touch screen devices & tablets.

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